Numbers in Islamic Science

The most comprehensive source on the universal history of numbers, including numbers in the Islamic world is the book The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the  Invention of the Computer by George Ifrah. This work originally appeared in French but was translated to other languages, including English.

It contains a detailed exposition of the historical development of Hindu-Arabic Numerals as well as Alphabetical number systems such as Abjad symbols, which are widely used, especially in astronomical tables.

George Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the  Invention of the Computer, John Wiley & Sons, 2000

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